When I speak of the author of the Bible, I mean God. And when I mention the writers of the Bible, I intend the men who were Inspired. The Bible writers were aware of Inspiration, both within themselves and in others. There are a few times when those with Inspiration argued for a certain point and based their argument on the grammar of other passages from the Bible.
Grammar and Inspiration
Jesus argues in favor of the resurrection before the Sadducees by quoting God to Moses at the burning bush, “I Am the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob” (Matthew 22:32, Exodus 3:14). His conclusion is that the three Patriarches still live, though physically dead when God addressed Moses. The entire argument is based upon the tense of the verb. Jesus uses the same argument before the Pharisees when He says, “Before Abraham was, I Am” (John 8:58).
To the Jews of the first century, Paul clears up their misunderstanding. God says the world will be blessed by the seed of Abraham (Genesis 12:2-3, 22:18), and since they were the seed of Abraham, they thought the world would be blessed through them. Paul points out the promise is through the seed, not seeds (Galatians 3:16). Paul contention hangs on the number of a noun, showing it is singular and not plural. These men would not make these arguments by Inspiration if word-for-word Inspiration does not also include the grammar of every word.
Inspiration and Authorship
The writers of Scripture were aware that they were Inspired in what thy wrote. To the Corinthians, Paul writes, “For I received from the Lord that which I also delivered to you” (First Corinthians 11:23). And to the Thessalonians, “For this reason we also thank God without ceasing, because when you received the word of God which you heard from us, you welcomed it not as the word of men, but as it is in truth, the word of God, which also effectively works in you who believe” (First Thessalonians 2:13). These passages not only show how men knew they were Inspired, but they demonstrate that speaking by Inspiration is the same in content as writing by Inspiration. Luke does the same when he records, “Now when the apostles who were at Jerusalem heard that Samaria had received the word of God, they sent Peter and John to them” (Acts 8:14).
Some have criticized plenary Inspiration like it’s a dictation machine, but that ignores the use of the human mind in the men Inspired. Paul writes, “The Spirit of the prophet is subject to the prophet” (First Corinthians 14:32). These men with the gift of prophecy did not control the content, but they had control over where and when it would be used. The words did not bubble out from them as they are some unconscious vessel like the Delphian oracle. Peter writes, “Of this salvation the prophets have inquired and searched carefully, who prophesied of the grace that would come to you, searching what, or what manner of time, the Spirit of Christ who was in them was indicating when He testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ and the glories that would follow. To them it was revealed that, not to themselves, but to us they were ministering the things which now have been reported to you through those who have preached the gospel to you by the Holy Spirit sent from Heaven, things which angels desire to look into” (First Peter 1:10-12). Several facts stand out from this text. But for our consideration, the greatest is that men spoke and wrote by Inspiration, and all the while they were conscious and aware. Their minds were engaged.
Writers even composed Scripture and considered what others wrote as Scripture. This is more than New Testament writers quoting Old Testament prophecy. For example, Paul writes, “For the Scripture says, ‘You shall not muzzle an ox while it treads out the grain,’ and, ‘The laborer is worthy of his wages’.” (First Timothy 5:18). Here Paul contends for paying elders who work full time in that capacity. He gives two passages to support his point. One is from the Old Testament (Deuteronomy 25:4), but the second is a quotation of Jesus (Luke 10:7). Both of these quotes are called Scripture. This means the gospel account of Luke was already written by this time, and that it was considered Biblical canon, not just by Paul and Timothy, but by the God Who Inspired Paul to so argue. Later Peter says, “and consider that the longsuffering of our Lord is salvation, as also our beloved brother Paul, according to the wisdom given to him, has written to you, as also in all his epistles, speaking in them of these things, in which are some things hard to understand, which untaught and unstable people twist to their own destruction, as they do also the rest of the Scriptures” (Second Peter 3:15-16). Peter also considers the epistles of Paul authentic Scripture.
New Testament Use Of The Old Testament
The New Testament treats Old Testament characters as people who really lived in history and their lives are accurately recorded in the Old Testament narratives. The New Testament agreed with the Old that Adam was the first man and Eve was the first woman, and the serpent beguiled Eve in the Garden of Eden (Matthew 19:4, First Corinthians 15:45, Second Corinthians 11:3, First Timothy 2:13, Genesis 2:24, 3:1-4). Noah and the flood was a real event (Matthew 24:37-39, First Peter 3:20, Second Peter 2:5, 3:6, Genesis 6-8). Lot and his family escaped God’s destruction of Sodom & Gomorrah (Luke 17:28-32, Second Peter 2:6-7, Genesis 18-19).
Moses lead the children of Israel out of Egypt and through the Red Sea of the great Exodus (First Corinthians 10:1-4, Exodus 14). In the desert, God punished the wandering Jews with poisonous serpents, but sent the remedy with instructions regarding the preparation of a Brass Serpent (John 3:14, Numbers 21:4-9). Jonah, whose historicity is scoffed the most by liberals, really was swallowed by a great fish (Matthew 12:39-40, Jonah 1:17). Add to that faith’s hall of fame, the catalog of heroes from the Old Testament listed in the 11th chapter of the book of Hebrews. It covers everything from creation to restoration, or in other words, all of the Old Testament history, and treats it as legitimate and historically accurate.
The Old Testament As Law
Before He ascends, Jesus says all written in the Law, the Psalms, and the prophets concerning Him has been fulfilled (Luke 24:44). That’s an accurate breakdown of the Old Testament, but in another sense, it is all considered law and not just the Pentateuch. John records Jesus saying, “Is it not written in your law, ‘I said, You are gods’? If He called them gods, to whom the word of God came, and the Scripture cannot be broken” (John 10:34-35, Psalm 82:6). Jesus quotes a Psalm, yet calls it both Law and Scripture. A similar occurrence is in John 15:25, where He quotes Psalm 69:4 and calls it Law. Three times Paul quotes material not in the Pentateuch, yet refers to it as Law.
- “In the law it is written: ‘Withmen of other tongues and other lips I will speak to this people, and yet, for all that, they will not hear Me’” (First Corinthians 14:21, Isaiah 28:11-12).
- “Now we know that whatever the law says, it says to those who are under the law, that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God” (Romans 3:19, having just quoted in the prior seven verses Psalms 14:1–3, 53:1–3, Ecclesiastes 7:20, Psalm 5:9, 140:3, 10:7, Isaiah 59:7, 8, Psalm 36:1).
- “Tell me, you who desire to be under the law, do you not hear the law? For it is written that Abraham had two sons: the one by a bondwoman, the other by a freewoman” (Galatians 4:21-22, Genesis 16:15, 21:1-3).
After the resurrection of Jesus, He encounters a pair of men traveling the road to the town of Emmaus. They are still sad over the crucifixion and are aware of the glorious events of that morning, but partially so. They know the women found the tomb opened and empty and that they spoke to angels, but as yet had not seen Jesus. They knew Jesus would redeem Israel, but their idea was probably nationalistic, so the cross frustrated them and the resurrection confused them.
Jesus replies to them, “Then He said to them, ‘O foolish ones, and slow of heart to believe in all that the prophets have spoken! Ought not the Christ to have suffered these things and to enter into His glory?’ And beginning at Moses and all the Prophets, He expounded to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning Himself” (Luke 24:25-27). Their ignorance is of all that the prophets have spoken, so He corrects them beginning with Moses and continuing through all of the prophets. While the literature of the Old Testament can be compartmentalized into the Law, Psalms, and Prophets, it is all one spiritual covenant, all Scripture and all law, and as a single voice of God was given to bring us to Jesus